Across cultures, parenting styles fall into three categories based on levels of demandingness and responsiveness. This literature review examines three categories of parenting styles and their influence on children’s behavior, risk-taking, mental health, and academic achievement. Controlling parents are high on demandingness and low on responsiveness (Baumrind, 1991; Kim, in press). Guiding parents are high on demandingness and high on responsiveness (Baumrind, 1991; Kim, in press). Permitting parents are low on demandingness and low on responsiveness (Baumrind, 1991; Kim, in press). Based on positive and negative effects of each parenting style, this review concludes that the guiding parenting style is the most effective for children. Implications for parents include recognizing the need to provide both support and structure for children.
Merlin, Clare; Okerson, Justine Rebecca; and Hess, Phillip
"How Parenting Style Influences Children: A Review of Controlling, Guiding, and Permitting Parenting Styles on Children’s Behavior, Risk- Taking, Mental Health, and Academic Achievement,"
The William & Mary Educational Review: Vol. 2
, Article 14.
Available at: https://publish.wm.edu/wmer/vol2/iss1/14