Virginia Institute of Marine Science
Special Reports in Applied Marine Science and Ocean Engineering (SRAMSOE) No. 216
The purpose of this report is to: (1) suggest reasons for the recently observed cownose ray predation on Rappahannock River oyster beds and the apparent increased abundance of the ray, and (2) recommend short- and long-term methods to control and/or manage cownose ray predation on commercially important sh1ellfish beds.
Oysters, Virginia, Predation, Management
This project was supported by funds made available through the National Sea Grant Program, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, U. S. Department of Commerce; and the Fisheries Science and Services Division, Virginia Institute of Marine Science.
Merriner, J. V., & Smith, J. W. (1979) A Report to the Oyster Industry of Virginia on the Biology and Management of the Cownose Ray (Rhinoptera bonasus, Mitchill) in Lower Chesapeake Bay. Special Reports in Applied Marine Science and Ocean Engineering (SRAMSOE) No. 216. Virginia Institute of Marine Science, College of William and Mary. https://publish.wm.edu/reports/960