Document Type



Virginia Institute of Marine Science

Publication Date



This project was done in response to concerns by environmental resource managers of historic and potential adverse impacts to Virginia’s secondary dune ecosystems. Virginia environmental regulatory programs have little decision-making authority over the use of secondary dunes as these areas are not included in the Coastal Primary Sand Dune Act (the Dunes Act). These areas function as estuarine edge habitat and provide natural upland erosion control, and are thus valuable to estuarine and coastal plain fauna and adjacent upland property owners.



Sand Dune Conservation, Virginia, Shoreline Management


This project was funded by the Coastal Resources Management Program of the Virginia Department of Environmental Quality through Grant #NA17OZ1142 of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Office of Ocean and Coastal Resource Management, under the Coastal Zone Management Act of 1972, as amended.